Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex injury with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities.


A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be classified from mild to severe. Symptoms are as follows:

Cognitive deficits including difficulties with:

  • Attention
  • Concentration
  • Distractibility
  • Memory
  • Speed of processing
  • Confusion
  • Perseveration
  • Impulsiveness
  • Language processing
  • "Executive functions" 

Speech and Language

  • Not understanding the spoken word (receptive aphasia)
  • Difficulty speaking and being understood (expressive aphasia)
  • Slurred speech
  • Speaking very fast or very slowly
  • Problems reading
  • Problems writing


  • Difficulties with interpretation of touch, temperature, movement, limb position and fine discrimination


  • The integration or patterning of sensory impressions into psychologically meaningful data


  • Partial or total loss of vision
  • Weakness of eye muscles and double vision (diplopia)
  • Blurred vision
  • Problems judging distance
  • Involuntary eye movements (nystagmus)
  • Intolerance of light (photophobia)


  • Decrease or loss of hearing
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus)
  • Increased sensitivity to sounds


  • Loss or diminished sense of smell (anosmia)


  • Loss or diminished sense of taste


  • The convulsions associated with epilepsy that can be several types and can involve disruption in  consciousness, sensory perception, or motor movements

Physical Changes

  • Physical paralysis/spasticity
  • Chronic pain
  • Control of bowel and bladder
  • Sleep disorders
  • Loss of stamina
  • Appetite changes
  • Regulation of body temperature
  • Menstrual difficulties


  • Dependent behaviors
  • Emotional ability
  • Lack of motivation
  • Irritability
  • Aggression
  • Depression
  • Disinhibition
  • Denial/lack of awareness

What you can expect from therapy

Therapy will focus on two essential processes: restoration of functions lost that can be restored and learning how to do things differently for those functions that cannot be restored. Therapy will be individualized to your child’s needs.

Learn more about how HealthReach therapists can help

Schedule your initial consultation today by calling us at 1-262-780-0707.

Click here to see our locations and to find a therapist near you.


Visit our resource center for videos and more information on occupational, physical and speech therapy.

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KidReach pediatric therapy specialists, Milwaukee, Brookfield, Hales Corners, Wisconsin